The following information represents my idea of safe, effective, and manageable daily vitamin and mineral dosages.  These levels have successfully prevented or minimized disease in accordance to my own experiences as well as researching Orthomolecular medicine facts where such data and records have been recorded. 

Essentially, with the major exceptions of vitamins C an E, my recommendations follow along the general formula lines of popular pet multivitamin and mineral products.  I highly recommend you purchase a good veterinary multivitamin and mineral product.  Most vets will have these products for sale over the counter, as would leading pet stores and some health food store.  Read the dosage instructions on the label and administer to your pet accordingly.

Ingredients will, of course, vary from product to product.  Some will have things that others donít have.  But donít be confused and donít be concerned.  The only differences I am concerned with for prevention plans are the vitamin C and E levels.  Most multivitamin and mineral products do not have added vitamin C or E, if you happen to purchase one which does, then you do not need to add more.

The nutrient levels in multiple vitamin and mineral supplements for pets are largely based on the nutrient requirements for food as determined by the National Research Council.  In other words, the dog will receive supplementally in powder or tablet what he should be getting in his food.  The NRC requirements for food are basically minimum nutrient guidelines for the adequate health and maintenance which I believe fall short of providing optimal protection against the many stresses encountered in a dogís lifetime.  In my opinion, I even question whether the dogís commercial food even contains these levels.

The multivitamin and mineral is, in effect, guaranteeing the NRC quantities.  It is something you personally have control over.  You may not know what the dog is actually getting in his food, but you know what he is getting in the supplement.  When you add the extra vitamin C and E, which enhance utilization and transportation of the other nutrients as well as doing so many other important jobs in the body, you are giving your dogs the best possible chance for optimal health.

For individuals who want to use human multivitamins and mineral products, try to find a tablet as close as possible to the recommended dosages I have suggest.  This may prove difficult.  To simplify matters, use a low potency human multi for a small dog and a medium potency for a large dog.  But you will still have to use additional vitamin C and E.  Donít worry.  The extra vitamin E is very unlikely to cause any problems.  Vitamin E is extremely non-toxic.  If anything, the animal will benefit.  If the product contains, for example 300 milligrams of vitamin C and I recommend 1,000 milligrams, then administer vitamin C in either tablet or powder form in the amount that brings it close to the recommended figure.

Vitamin C dosage should be based on the following schedule depending on the individual dogs requirements.  It is advisable that the dose does not exceed the following:

SMALLER BREEDS:  At weaning age, commence with Ĺ ml Paediatric drops and increase gradually to 1 ml daily until six months of age.  They can then be gradually introduced to 250 mg. daily as a maximum dose in powder or tablet form as adults.

LARGER BREEDS:   At weaning age commence with 1 ml Paediatric drops and increase to 2mls daily until four months of age.  They can then be gradually introduced to 500 to 1000 mg.  depending on how large the breed is.  This is the maximum dose in powder or tablet form for adults.

Note:  The doses shown here are a guideline and much depends on the individual dogís tolerance of the vitamin and correct dose for the individual dog.  Also during times of stress, such as during vaccination, re-homing, obedience training, exhibition, or pregnancy and lactation, the doses could be higher.  Dosages of vitamin C are given to the activity of the dog.  An active or working dog received the higher dose.  Aged dogs also tend to need more vitamin C than the younger ones.

VITAMIN E:  For small breeds up to 500mg.  Medium breeds up to1,500 mg.  Large breeds up to 3000 IU.  Giant breeds up to 6,000 IU.

The following are the required vitamins and minerals you should be looking to find in a multi vitamin and mineral powder to maintain your dogs on daily.

Small                Medium                     Large                                      Giant

Vitamin A      1,500 IU           3,000 IU                     5,000 IU                                7,500 IU

B1                   0.5 mg              1 mg                            2 mg                                      4 mg

B2                   0.5 mg              1 mg                            2 mg                                      4 mg

B3                   15 mg               30 mg                          50 mg                                    75 mg

Pantothenic    3 mg                  6 mg                            10 mg                                    15 mg

B6                   0.75 mg            1.5 mg                          3 mg                                       5 mg

Folic Acid       33 mcg            66 mcg                         112 mcg                                 17 mcg

B 12                 6 mcg              15 mcg                         30 mcg                                  45 mcg

Biotin               12 mcg           66 mcg                        112 mcg                                170 mcg

Vitamin D       100 IU             200 IU                        400 IU                                    400 IU

Vitamin E        100 IU             200 IU                        200 IU                                     400 IU

Calcium           15 mg              30 mg                          50 mg                                      75 mg

Phosphorus      11.5 mg           23 mg                          40 mg                                      57 mg

Iron                  9 mg               18 mg                          30 mg                                       40 mg

Sodium            175 mg           350 mg                        500 mg                                 1,000 mg

Potassium        50 mg             100 mg                        150 mg                                    200 mg

Manganese       0.75 mg          1.5 mg                         2.6 mg                                   3.75 mg

Zinc                  10 mg             10 mg                          30 mg                                     30 mg

Magnesium       10 mg             20 mg                         50 mg                                      75 mg

Copper               1 mg             2mg                            3.5 mg                                     5 mg

Iodine                 0.2 mg           0.4 mg                        0.7 mg                                     1 mg

Selenium             12 mcg         25 mcg                        50 mcg                                   50 mcg

Remember:  You will be purchasing a multiple vitamin and mineral product for pets, along with the separate vitamin C and E supplements.  The dosages shown here represent what is generally found in commercial multivitamins and mineral formulas.  Dosages of individual nutrients will vary from product to product, but donít be confused by this.  For your animal, follow the dosage instructions on the label of the multi product.  Then add the extra vitamin C and E according to my recommendations here.

To administer any of the vitamins I find it is much easier to mix into the dogís food.  Start gradually so that your dog becomes accustomed to the flavour.  Mix a small amount and over days to weeks gradually build to full strength.

Vitamin  C is extremely non-toxic vitamin but some dogs have a low bowel tolerance for the vitamin.  It should be administered gradually starting with well below the recommended dose and slowly increasing over weeks to the required dose.  It is best to administer in divided doses throughout the day.  Remember also, there will be different levels for different dogs, all depending on individual requirements and once you discover which dose your dog is tolerating without bowel upsets, then that is the right dose for your individual dose.  Also remember that sodium ascorbate form of vitamin C is more tolerated in dogs and generally does not cause bowel upset.